Periodontal disease is a chronic bacterial infection of the supporting structures of the tooth (gums and underlying bone) that, if left untreated, can lead to tooth loss.
In the initial form of the disease, Gingivitis, redness, swelling and bleeding are usually noticeable. This condition is caused by poor oral hygiene and is usually reversible with good home care and professional cleanings.
If left untreated, Gingivitis can lead to Periodontitis where the underlying tissues are destroyed. Pocket formation (separation of the gum from the tooth) along with bone loss are the first signs of Periodontitis. This condition is usually asymptomatic.
What Causes Periodontal Disease?
Bacterial Plaque is the principal cause of gum disease. It is a thin, sticky, colorless film that forms around teeth.
Risk factors such as smoking, diabetes, stress, hormonal derangement and genetic predisposition play a major role in the extent and severity of the disease.